By David A. Peterson
This booklet provides the 1st systematic typological research of applicatives throughout African, American Indian, and East Asian languages. it's also the 1st to handle their services in discourse, the derivation in their semantic and syntactic houses, and the way and why they've got replaced through the years.
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Additional resources for Applicative Constructions (Oxford Studies in Typology and Linguistic Theory)
18 Applicative Constructions (31) tsewmaŒ kay-ma? a? ’ which is similar, but according to speakers of Lai does not quite correspond semantically to the -piak construction. In (31) the beneWciary is structurally the possessor of a relational noun, tsaa, which is marked obliquely. 3 -pii: comitative The suYx -pii signals the addition of an object argument which is understood to be a co-participant with the subject in the performance of the action described by the verb; such comitative applicative constructions are not at all uncommon cross-linguistically.
A? 3pS-go-rel¼loc tsakay¼ni? ii . . 3pS-past-3O-devour-also-pl obj¼conn ‘. . at the place they went to the tiger devoured them, too, and . ’ 30 Applicative Constructions Occasionally an object may precede the subject, however, as in the following text examples: khaa tsaaytsim-tee¼ni? khan (87) . . an-thal¼le? ii . . 3sS-past-3sO-eat-exhaust¼conn ‘. . the little mouse had eaten all of their bows and strings, and . ’ tsuu paalaw¼ni? ii . . y’s neck, and . ’ It is unclear what the pragmatics of this dislocation are, but it does typically occur with heavy elements, which is consistent with what Hawkins (1994) claims about the treatment of heavy elements in head-Wnal languages.
It is of interest in the case of verbs with multiple objects to determine whether there are any restrictions on which object may be left-dislocated. In fact it turns out that the applicative object interpretation is preferred for dislocated objects in these situations. The left-dislocation facts for benefactive applicative construction and the other applicative constructions at Wrst seem a bit convoluted, but they are remarkably consistent from one applicative construction to the next. m-piak (89) tsewmaŒ¼ni?
Applicative Constructions (Oxford Studies in Typology and Linguistic Theory) by David A. Peterson