By Marc Picard
This textbook is designed to fill simple wishes. One is for a transparent and easy presentation of the rudiments of articulatory phonetics that's geared particularly to the necessities of the (future) language instructor, and never completely to the scholar of linguistics, and during which the elemental techniques and terminology are brought through English in preference to quite a few languages. a good higher want, might be, and one who has long gone unfulfilled for too lengthy, is for an easy yet quite entire review of the phonetic stock of North American French.
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Extra info for An Introduction to the Comparative Phonetics of English and French in North America
When it is only necessary, for a variety of reasons, to point up the sig nificant phonological oppositions of a language, a broad transcription will do. In such a case, the rules that produce allophonic variations are stated beforehand, and only the phonemes are transcribed. This kind of system is very convenient in those situations where no importance need be given to the redundant phonetic details of individual forms. Whenever it becomes useful or relevant to represent these phonetic details, however, we can resort to a narrow transcription whereby predicta ble allophonic variations are included.
These central approximants, then, are articulated at three different points, as shown in Figure 10: alveolar for / j / , palatal for /y/ and velar for /w/. Note that the palatal and velar approxim ants, which are habitually referred to as semivowels, semiconsonants or glides, are nothing more than the non-syllabic versions of the high vowels /i/ (cf. Figure 1 (p. 11)) and /u/ (cf. Figure 2 (p. 11)). In fact, because the velar articulation of /w/ is accompanied by lip rounding as in /u/, it is classified as a labio velar.
At any rate, in the production of these unreleased stops, normal plosion is suppressed so that they are not accompanied by any release of compressed air. These seg ments are most commonly transcribed [p° t° k°]. C. Voiceless stops are unreleased at the end of syllables: 1. 2. g. g. catni[p°], shar[k°], doughnu[t°], applecar[t°]. Note, however, that unreleased stops are more or less optional in this position, and that whereas [t°] is very common, [p°] is less so and [k°] is downright rare. Each of these abstract sound units or phonemes /p t k/, then, has three positional variants or allophones in English, to wit: As we have just seen, these allophones are in complementary distribu tion since it is entirely predictable in what environment(s) each one can be found.
An Introduction to the Comparative Phonetics of English and French in North America by Marc Picard