By A.P.R. Howatt
This ebook strains the heritage of English language instructing correct as much as the origins of the communicative strategy, finishing with a dialogue of the impression of utilized linguistics on language instructing in either the USA and Britain.
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Comrie who points out that the perfect and the past tense both "place a situation in the past" and do not differ in this respect (Comrie 1981b:29). 6) The resultatives of verbs of motion can collocate with adverbials which do not occur with the base verb; cf. Russian: (33) a. Ne k Not to 'Hasn't b. Ne u Not at tebe li (*u tebja) ona priexala you (*at you) she came she come to your place (*at your place)? tebja li ona priexa-cci? ) (Kuz'mina 1971:183; see ch. 2; ch. 9, §9). To sum up, the resultative differs from the perfect by: 1) its specific meaning and, as a consequence, 2) lexical restrictions, 3) preferential intransitivity, and 4) possibility of change in collocation with adverbials of time and place.
They are included here provisionally, as a related phenomenon. 1. Paradigmatic opposition. The members of the opposition, resultative and non-resultative, have differing paradigms, for instance, the number of person markers may change in the alternation of the subject and subject-object agreement; cf. Ket: (37) a. -it-attach T am mending a shoe-sole' b. -it-attach 'The shoe-sole is mended' (Krejnovic 1968:42, 248-252). Similar oppositions, but with a different way of marking tense-forms, are attested in Abaza (cf.
5. Thus, in Nivkh objective resultatives are less fre quent than the other two main types, while in Uzbek, Eskimo, and Mongo lian objective resultatives (almost) entirely prevail. In Russian, the subjec tive resultative can be derived almost exclusively from formal reflexives (sja verbs) on condition that the latter have a corresponding non-reflexive verb (cf. (21); see ch. 1). 3. Tense-aspect restrictions. As the resultative expresses a state that occurs after an action, one may expect restrictions concerning the future tense forms.
A History of English Language Teaching by A.P.R. Howatt