By A.P.R. Howatt

ISBN-10: 0194370755

ISBN-13: 9780194370752

This ebook strains the heritage of English language instructing correct as much as the origins of the communicative strategy, finishing with a dialogue of the impression of utilized linguistics on language instructing in either the USA and Britain.

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Comrie who points out that the perfect and the past tense both "place a situation in the past" and do not differ in this respect (Comrie 1981b:29). 6) The resultatives of verbs of motion can collocate with adverbials which do not occur with the base verb; cf. Russian: (33) a. Ne k Not to 'Hasn't b. Ne u Not at tebe li (*u tebja) ona priexala you (*at you) she came she come to your place (*at your place)? tebja li ona priexa-cci? ) (Kuz'mina 1971:183; see ch. 2; ch. 9, §9). To sum up, the resultative differs from the perfect by: 1) its specific meaning and, as a consequence, 2) lexical restrictions, 3) preferential intransitivity, and 4) possibility of change in collocation with adverbials of time and place.

They are included here provisionally, as a related phenomenon. 1. Paradigmatic opposition. The members of the opposition, resultative and non-resultative, have differing paradigms, for instance, the number of person markers may change in the alternation of the subject and subject-object agreement; cf. Ket: (37) a. -it-attach T am mending a shoe-sole' b. -it-attach 'The shoe-sole is mended' (Krejnovic 1968:42, 248-252). Similar oppositions, but with a different way of marking tense-forms, are attested in Abaza (cf.

5. Thus, in Nivkh objective resultatives are less fre­ quent than the other two main types, while in Uzbek, Eskimo, and Mongo­ lian objective resultatives (almost) entirely prevail. In Russian, the subjec­ tive resultative can be derived almost exclusively from formal reflexives (sja verbs) on condition that the latter have a corresponding non-reflexive verb (cf. (21); see ch. 1). 3. Tense-aspect restrictions. As the resultative expresses a state that occurs after an action, one may expect restrictions concerning the future tense forms.

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A History of English Language Teaching by A.P.R. Howatt

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