By Lin Lougheed Ed.D.

ISBN-10: 0764194011

ISBN-13: 9780764194016

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That was a much earlier man. Cleanthes, his successor as head of the school. Chrysippus (c. 279–206 BC). Chrysippus especially was a logician of immense stature. He is comparable in importance to (and perhaps even better than) Aristotle himself. By a very odd twist of fate, all the original works of what we call “Stoic logic” are now lost. Not a single one remains in anything but the most fragmentary quotations by other authors. I regard this fact as something of a historical mystery. What happened to these works?

See also the comment at the end of n. 52 above. 30 Chapter 2: Thumbnail Sketch of the History of Logic Chrysippus in particular is well known for having taken five propositional inference forms as “indemonstrable” — as primitive or basic. Here they are54: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) If the first, then the second; but the first; therefore, the second. ) If the first, then the second; but not the second; therefore, not the first. ) Not both the first and the second; but the first; therefore, not the second.

This is done by “reducing” those other moods to one of the four axiomatic first-figure moods. And what is a “reduction”? It is an argument showing, by the rules of conversion described on pp. 18–19 above, together with one of the four axiomatic first-figure syllogisms, that the mood in question (the one to be “reduced”) is valid. The procedure for reducing to the first figure is also secretly there in the mnemonic names. Here is the key to unpacking it: (a) The initial letter of the mnemonic name is the same as the initial letter of the axiomatic first-figure mood to which the syllogism is to be reduced.

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600 Essential Words for the TOEIC - 3rd Edition by Lin Lougheed Ed.D.

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